In the name of God, the most Merciful, the most Merciful!


New Literature for a New Era

Education at its best -- for both Muslims and non-Muslims.

Authentic. Unique. Powerful. Readable. Absorbing.
Accessible. Electrifying. Groundbreaking.

Driving Islam Home to the World -- One Concept at a Time!

See Islam for all that Islam really is:

Peaceable! Positive! Simple! Sensible! Elegant! Civilized! Constructive! Hopeful! Contemporary! Pragmatic! Problem-Solving! Moderate! Modern! Balanced! Just! Fair! Compassionate! Truthful! Nice! Easy! Fun! Global! Divine! Authentic! Original! Free! (Dr. Pasha)

The Mantle of Misogyny Muslims Inherited from Others

Quote-Unquote: Dr. Pasha on Islam,
Muslims and the World


There was a time when the Christians and the Jews debated endlessly whether the woman was a human being or not; and whether she had a soul or not; and whether she was taking everybody to Hell or not.

Some of them called her the Instrument of the Devil. Others gave her the name Gateway to Hell.

But everybody pretty much agreed that she was somehow a lesser human being, fundamentally lacking in the human essence and spirit.

But in the Middle of the Seventh Century – 1400 years back – Islam came and put an end to all that nonsense. Once and for all. At least so you would have thought.

But, as it turns out, not if the Muslims could help it.

For, eventually, they too decided to dive into the same Lizard's Hole the Christians and the Jews were occupying before them. Just as the Prophet, Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, had warned them they would.

But, unlike the Jews and the Christians, the Muslim concern was not if a woman had a soul or not; and if she led them all to hell or not; but, rather, if a woman could have a leadership role in life or not.

They also agonized in their spare time – and all their time was beginning to become spare – about what kind of clothes they would like to see a woman wear.

Not all Muslims, mind you, but yet quite a few among them. Especially, many of those who thought they were the better ones among Muslims – more ostensibly God-fearing; more manifestly conformist; and more punctiliously observant of the required Islamic “rituals.”

And somehow, paradoxically and inexplicably, less tolerant and less accommodating of others than their Prophet, Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, was.

As if that was their mandate from God: Going after the female half of their species and telling them what to wear and how to behave.

So, the Muslims gladly wore the broadly misogynist mantle inherited from the Christians and the Jews, even though they opted for only the lighter and milder version of it.

In the process, the Muslims forgot their own glorious Islamic teachings and traditions of female emancipation, equality and empowerment.

And in many cases they went after the womenfolk with a vengeance under one pretext or another, even though all this was fairly benign compared to some of what was going on elsewhere.

And most certainly there never were any burnings at the stake – a la Joan of Arc at the hands of the British in France or in line with other burnings of putative witches that took place for instance in Salem, Massachusetts, in the New World.

In the process, the Muslims gave up education and science and turned their back on innovation, creativity, pragmatic problem solving and enlightenment.

They also replaced personal liberty with social and political tyranny and exchanged a democratic and egalitarian way of life for hereditary monarchy and dictatorship – and for all sorts of feudal and authoritarian power structures and arrangements.

And they filled their mind with all kinds of idle thought and empty space.

I have always refrained from honoring these debates by joining them. But let me ask these faux-super Muslims this question anyway – this one question that to me is most simple and elementary.

Those who spend endless hours and days debating if a woman can be a leader or not; and if she can be in charge of something or not; and then they drag the glorious and blessed name of Islam in this perverse, foolish and futile debate; all they need to do is just think about one thing.

That is all they need to do. Think about one thing. Answer one simple question.

Let them ask themselves: Just who was the owner, master – and leader – of their kitchen, when their gourmet meal was being prepared the previous day, and who was in charge of that cup of sumptuous tea or coffee – or some other similar drug – that their wife placed in their hand that morning?

And then let them allow their imagination to wander. And let them ponder all the Might-Have-Beens of that kitchen and all the likely brews that could have taken the place of that cup of life-giving early morning or afternoon tea or coffee.

All the different kinds of poison, some slow to act and some faster to work their havoc; some most painful and excruciating and some with their deadly effects barely visible to the naked eye.

No, under the eminent, capable and compassionate leadership of their women, their cup of tea was still a cup of tea and the food they had been consuming all of yesterday was nothing but food.

The result is that these ingrate men live on – maybe only to ungraciously malign their women another day.

They are still alive and breathing – these ungracious and ingrate and somewhat foolish men – and continuing to make their mischief.

No, their wives did not use their total mastery of their culinary territory to put an end to their existence with a chalice full of hemlock.

Instead, the women of their household – and practically every other household on earth – exercised their leadership in the most positive, supportive and nurturing manner that they have been doing for who knows how long.


Quote-Unquote - Book III: Quote 276

Show all quotes

Every Day Is a New Year's Day!
Did You Know That?

New Year came and went. In fact, we are already half way through the first month of this new year of our life.

But, as Dr. Pasha points out, every day that dawns on us is the first day of a brand new year of the rest of our life.

If we understand this simple and obvious fact, we will understand what life is all about, and we will be able to live out the rest of our life pursuing priorities that really matter to us, and that are truly beneficial for us, and for our society, free from all kinds of irrelevancies, distractions and exploitations.

So, read on this New Year article that Dr. Pasha wrote nearly a decade ago, and that is as fresh and relevant and helpful today as it was when it was first published ten years ago on January 04, 2008.

Dr. Kamalodeen

Book Review

"If the book is read with the seriousness and attention it merits, it has the potential to have as profound and far-reaching an impact on religion, society, government and human relations as Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species eventually came to have on scientific and social thought nearly a century and a half earlier." ISLAM: NEW FRONTIERS, Book Review



[This material is being edited for quality and accuracy]

    Latest Quotes


    Stopping the Rise of Fascism in India [Quote – 950]

    Posted: Aug 16, 2019 | 1 day ago.

    As we celebrate this Eidul Adha, 2019, how many of us are taking the time to think about what a Fascist Indian Government is doing to Kashmir Muslims at the time of this Eid. What kind of Eid are the Muslims of Kashmir having?

    And what are we, in America, Europe, UK and elsewhere, willing to do in support of the Mazloom Kashmir Muslims at the hands of India’s Fascist Government

    Will we hold meetings and discuss the issue?  

    Will we dedicate our Jum’ah Khutbahs to discuss this matter? 

    Will we raise the Kashmir situation with our own government: our Senators, governors, Congressmen, mayors, media people, others?

    What are we doing to reach out to our non-Muslim fellow-citizens in America and elsewhere to educate them about the rise of this new wave of rabid Fascism in India? 

    And about the terrible fate that India’s Fascist BJP Government has imposed on the defenseless Muslims of Kashmir?

    Or is this all not part of Islam?



    Show all quotes

    State of the Ummah [Quote – 949]

    Aug 16, 2019 | 1 day ago.

    The Muslim Ummah today is nearly one and a half billion strong: 1,500,000,000 souls as it were.

    After the Christians and the Chinese People, Muslims today are the largest grouping of humanity on God’s earth.

    But out of this multitude, there are one or two individuals, here and there, in every society and community, in a manner of speaking, who practically do a most amazing job in whatever they do, and thus carry the entire Ummah on their shoulders — these stray but most blessed individuals. 

    The rest of the Ummah lives happily ever after, doing what it has always done: Just going on living happily ever after.



    Show all quotes

    Islam Is All about Doing a Proper Professional Job —
    In Everything You Do! [Quote – 948]

    Aug 16, 2019 | 1 day ago.

    No matter what you are doing, ask yourself how the best professional in that area and in that field would do it. If you make an honest and unrelenting effort to come up to that level, you would have gotten a taste of what it is to be a Muslim. For, Islam is about doing things — any thing and all things — the very best way that they can be done.

    In the language of the Hadith, it is called Itqaan.



    Show all quotes

    A Book Called Quote-Unquote, Vol. 1 [Quote – 947]

    Aug 12, 2019 | 5 days ago.

    A Book Review of Sorts by the Author

    I did sit down this morning and read this book through: A Book Called Quote-Unquote, Vol. 1

    And my sentiments were: May Allah give all those people associated with the publication of this volume the most wonderful blessings of This World (Dunya) as well the most wonderful blessings of the Next World (Aakhirah).

    I mean all those amazing people who financed the project. All those who typed and scanned and proofread and printed the material. And all those who put the original quotes on And so on.

    What impressed me most was that almost the entire publication was typo-free. And that to me, where Muslim publications are concerned, one of the greatest and most significant achievements.

    As for the quotes, they seemed to make general intuitive and scientific sense. And I felt fairly satisfied with the style and quality of writing and the language.

    This was important. For, this and all other publications associated with www.IslamicSolutions.Com originated with a conscious and determined effort to produce authentic Islamic Literature using language and style that would pass linguistic and professional muster.

    Readability from a professional point of view being one of the key requirements of all our publications, this one appeared to have met that requirement to a high degree. 

    As for the content having anything to do with Islam, Muslims and the World, well, our goal has always been to operate within the boundaries of the Qur’an and the Hadith, the two sources that encompass every form of knowledge and human experience and expression in the world.

    I wish everyone everywhere, professionals as well as the so-called lay people, both Muslims and non-Muslims, would somehow read this book. 

    And, maybe, reflect on its content. Some people would say there is some food for thought in some of those quotes.



    Show all quotes

    What the Media Call Hindu or Indian Nationalism
    Is in Reality Fascism of the 21st-Century [Quote – 947]

    Aug 12, 2019 | 5 days ago.

    When Hitler and his Nazi hordes did it, they called it Nazism and mobilized the whole world to fight it.

    When Mussolini and his Fascist mobs did it, they called it Fascism and hanged them in public.

    Now that Narendra Modi and Amit Shah and their fanatical mobs of Bharatya Jan Sangh and its ideological parent RSS suppress dissent, persecute minorities and publicly lynch and massacre innocent civilians, the media and others call it Hindu Nationalism.

    The world is witnessing the rise of one of the worst Fascist regimes in the world in India today. The consequences of ignoring the rise of this 21st-Century Fascism in India, and whitewashing it by calling it Indian Nationalism or Hindu Nationalism, will be clear for all to see within the next several months. 

    And then it will be too late to do anything about it.



    Show all quotes

    Returning to Doing a Qur’an Program Maybe? [Quote – 946]

    Aug 07, 2019 | 1 week ago.

    I don’t know. Only Allah knows. But indications are I may be returning to doing a Qur’an Program.

    Too early to tell. But there are signs it may happen. Of course, should Allah’s will and pleasure and Decree so require and mandate it.

    I make no secret of the fact that my heart is with the Qur’an. And my life is inside the pages and aayats of the Qur’an. I wish I could read the Qur’an and reflect on its wonders all the time.

    I also wish I could talk about the Qur’an every moment of my life — with whomever will listen, and, sometimes, even when there is no one around to listen. And keep talking about it till my tongue could move or function no more.

    There was a time I used to say, when I talk about the Qur’an I talk to an Audience of One. And that is none of the members of the audience at the time.

    And, of course, when you talk about the Qur’an, the space is crowded with Allah’s angels. And, of course, Allah is listening.

    So, you pick your audience then.

    I wish to talk about the Qur’an not because I don’t have other things to talk about. I do. There are a million things I could talk about, each more beautiful and more exciting than the other. 

    But the Qur’an is infinitely more exciting and infinitely more beautiful than everything else.

    And this is not a reflection of my “Faith,” whatever that means, but a simple statement of fact.

    So, opportunity came along, what nonsense, I should say, Allah brought an opportunity, to talk to some highly educated Muslims last night. 

    And they did what any Highly-Educated Muslim would do. Some of them wanted the session to be different. You know, “more structure,” “topics” clearly identified and all that wonderful stuff.

    In short, they wanted the session to look and run like a class. My first reaction was a bit on the naughty side. I thought in my heart, I did not say it aloud: You mean the way they said to Musa, Alaihis Salam?

    Yaa Musa Ij’al Lanaa Ilaahan,
    Kamaa Lahum Aalihah.


    “Hey Musa, 
    See all those nice little gods these people have?
    Can you make one just like that for us also?”

    But then I gave them two assignments. And that is better than I did in the past 50 years of Talking Qur’an to the People.

    If you ask me, maybe those who read this must also undertake this assignment. Those Aayaat, just like every other Aayat in the Qur’an, are the most amazing things you will ever find.

    (1) Assignment One said: 

    Carefully review Aayaat 74-83 of Surah Al-An’am and tell me what they tell you about how Ibrahim, Alaihis Salam, marched from simple curiosity and observation of what he thought to be elementary natural phenomena such as a star to a fuller and more sophisticated discovery of reality and God Almighty himself.

    (2) And then Assignment Two said:

    Go through the Qur’an and give me a list of three “Topics,” or “Themes” you think the Qur’an is about.

    Maybe this assignment thing will make me a “teacher” now. But why would I even dare to want to be a “Teacher” when that title was claimed by someone whom Allah himself sent as a Teacher and a Message of Love and Mercy to all the Worlds?

    Qur’an Karim:

    Wa Maa Arsalnaaka Illaa Rahmatan Lil-Aalameen!

    Hadith Sharif:

    Innamaa Bu’ithtu Mu’alliman.


    I don’t know how to paraphrase this Hadith. But I will, with great hesitation, say something like:

    I have only been sent as a Teacher!


    All I am is a Teacher!



    Show all quotes

    Message of This Eidul Adha 1440:
    Sunnat of Ibrahim, Alaihis Salam, Is Transcending Boundaries [Quote – 945]

    Aug 06, 2019 | 1 week ago.

    Muslim problem is not that Muslims are not good people. 

    Or that they do not work hard. Or that they are not smart. 

    Or that they do not have the wherewithal to be successful or even be great in this world.

    The main Muslim issue is that most Muslims are clueless about Islam. That is right, clueless, even though they may know their Salaah and other Faraa-id and Sunan and Nawaafil

    If Muslims knew their Islam, and understood it, they would know that the Sunnat of Ibrahim, Alaihis Salam, is to transcend boundaries: all kinds of boundaries, from geographic to cultural to ethnic to every other boundary that human beings are bound and limited by.

    His was a life of total freedom.

    The Aayat Karimah makes it as clear as it can be. Ibrahim, Alaihis Salam’s, destination is Allah.

    Innee Dhaahibun Ila Rabbee.

    And there is no mixing of motives here and there is no duality or blurring of boundaries:

    Inna Salaatee wa Nusukee wa Mahyaaya wa Mamaatee 

    Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen.


    Laa Sharika Lahu.

    It is time for Muslims everywhere to make a conscious attempt to transcend their natural geographic and ethnic and national boundaries of origin and start looking at themselves as “Muslims.”

    The way Ibrahim, Alaihis Salam, did.

    From this point of view, the pain of what is happening in Kashmir today, and what is going to happen in future all over the world, as a result of India’s illegal annexation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, is not the pain of Kashmiri Muslims alone. 

    It should be the most personal and intimate pain of every single Muslim everywhere, regardless of what ethnic, cultural or geographic boundaries they may come from.

    And, beyond that, of every single human being everywhere.



    Show all quotes

    Typos Are Haram [Quote – 944]

    Jul 27, 2019 | 3 weeks ago.

    Halal-Haram are core Islamic concepts. All of a Muslim’s life revolves around this twin axis of Halal-Haram.

    Haram means “Forbidden.” Taboo. It means inadmissible, unlawful, impermissible.

    Halal means that which is “Not Forbidden.” It means that which is lawful, permissible, admissible.

    And this Twin Axis of Halal-Haram is created by God Almighty himself. Because God Almighty is the true and real legislator of all things in human life. And this Twin Halal-Haram Axis is the foundation stone of all human legislative needs.

    And, of course, Allah’s Rasul, Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, is too. He is the second source of all human legislative ideas and procedures and methods, after Allah.

    Go and count in the Qur’an the number of times God Almighty couples the name of his RasulSallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, with his own name. Go and see how many times the Qur’an says: Allah and his RasulSallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam.


    Atee’ullaha wa Atee’ur Rasula.

    After that, and based on guidelines and models provided by Allah and his Rasul, Sallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam, humans in every age and place are free to do their own specific legislation based on their changing needs.

    So, given the enormity of the concepts of Halal and Haram in Islam, it is not a good thing to loosely shoot one’s mouth, calling this or that thing Halal or Haram in a cavalier fashion.

    Keeping all these caveats in mind, I still feel comfortable saying, in a Fatwa-like manner, that Typos are Haram.

    And by that I mean, people, when they write their stuff, whatever it is that they write, have an “Islamic” responsibility to make sure that their writings are Typo free. Otherwise, they will be committing a sin for each Typo they make and allow to pass into their writing.

    After that, at stage two, all those who publish and proofread that material, and would not catch those typos and let them stand, would also be committing a sin.

    After that, at stage three, all those who read that material in one form or another, and for one reason or another, and ignore those Typos and fail to take any steps to alert responsible people to correct them, will also be sinful.

    This is the kind of Chain Reaction of Sin that, when it takes hold of a society, corrodes that society and weakens its moral fiber, and makes it vulnerable to all kinds of other moral, social and spiritual problems and issues.

    So, if this sounds like a Fatwa, it is. Well, a Fatwa of sorts, really, from someone who does not relish being in the Fatwa business, though qualified to issue Fatwas by background, qualification and training.

    And if, on the other hand, it sounds like a piece of social analysis, it is, which, social analysis I mean, I love doing. And also, for doing which I have undertaken enormous efforts to equip myself with all the needed training, tools and education.

    So, everybody, beware of typos: whether you make them; read them; or choose to ignore them. 

    And beware of the nefarious impact these seemingly innocuous Typos can produce on individuals and societies.



    Show all quotes

    For Once, Doing a Blessing Count! [Quote – 943]

    Feb 17, 2019 | 5 months ago.

    I do not count my Blessings. Or anyone else’s. Never did. Never got into the habit.

    I always thought the angels — and there is a whole bunch of them everywhere, and at every juncture in your life, monitoring and recording every moment and everything you say and do — would do a better job of it than I ever could.

    So, I always told myself: 

    Alright Mr! Stop worrying about the Blessings. Just get on with your job. Do what you have to do, and the rest will follow with that most amazing preciseness, certainty and predictability with which God Almighty has packed his universe.

    But today, encouraged by some new comments from an old friend, I thought I will send out some Special Blessings — of course, I have no idea what “Special Blessings” are — in the direction of all those wonderful people who visit IslamicSolutions.Com and read any of the articles or listen to any of the tapes. 

    And then react to those articles and tapes in their own hearts and minds. 

    And then go on to comment on them in whatever manner or form or fashion, using whatever forum or platform or venue that may be available to them. 

    Including sending us e-mails, using our e-mail address that is right there on IslamicSolutions.ComDrSyedPasha@Aol.Com.

    So, I say to them:


    May Allah bless you:

    1. For visiting IslamicSolutions.Com.

    2. And for reading any of the articles therein.

    3. And for listening to any of the tapes. 

    3. And for registering and absorbing some of the material and meaning in those articles and tapes. 

    4. And for reacting in your own heart and mind to what you read or listened to.

    5. And then for going on to comment on what you read, and what you heard, to whomever you could, using whatever avenue or platform or opportunity may be available to you. 

    For, that is Islam!

    For, Allah’s Rasul, Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, says what I am paraphrasing here: 

    “Those of you who happen to be here right now, 

    let them convey this message and this material 

    to those who are not present here at this time.”

    If I recall right, the blessed words of Allah’s Rasul, Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, were:

    Fal-Yuballigh Ashshaahid Al-Ghaa-ib!

    5. And a whole bunch of Super-Special Blessings — again, no idea what they are — also, for your reactions and comments appearing to be genuine and coming from the heart as they say.

    That is a lot of blessings if you ask me. But I was never good at counting blessings.

    I just got on with the job at hand. And did my duty — to the best of my ability.



    Show all quotes

    Du’a Is Not a Du’a Unless It Is Really a Du’a! [Quote – 942]

    Feb 05, 2019 | 6 months ago.

    Du’a is not a Du’a unless it is really a Du’a.

    And until and unless every fiber in your body and mind and soul is consumed and overwhelmed by it. 

    And until it is accompanied by copious crying and heart-rending sobs and torrential tears.

    Your RasulSallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, even showed you how to do it. The same way he showed everything else.

    He said what may be paraphrased as: 

    “If you don’t know how to cry, 
    and if the tears will not come to you easily and readily, 
    then at least go through the motion of crying.” 

    “Act as if you are actually crying.”

    “Force yourself to cry.”

    “Affect crying!”

    Fa-Tabaakoo, is how he put it.

    And then — and this is my sense of the meaning, not part of the Hadith Sharif — and then maybe, maybe when it is time, and when you are ready, the tears will come to you.

    Allahu Akbar! What a Deen Allah sent. 

    And, Allahu Akbar, what a teacher he sent to teach that Deen to the world.

    The least we can do is say: 

    Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam!

    And, of course, say:

    Fa-Lillahil Hamdu Rabbis Samaawaati,
    Wa Rabbil Ardi,
    Rabbil Aalameen!



    Show all quotes

    Keeping Allah’s Light Burning [Quote – 941]

    Jan 31, 2019 | 6 months ago.

    May Allah Almighty shower his blessings on all those who play a role in keeping this candle of the Qur’an burning. 

    If you want, call it the Light of Allah.

    For, that is what the Qur’an is: Allah’s Noor!

    God Almighty’s Light!

    Here, listen to the Qur’an:

    Fa-Aaminoo Billahi wa Rasoolihi
    Wan Noorilladhi Anzalnaa!


    So, Believe in Allah,
    And in his Rasul,
    And in the Noor that we sent down.

    Allahu Akbar, how clear this Qur’an is!

    I am not saying great and beautiful. And it is all that and more.

    I am saying: Clear!

    “Clarity” of idea, argument and diction is among the greatest miracles of the Qur’an that even a blind person can see.

    So, helping in any form or fashion, and to any degree, to keep this Qur’an Reading and Khatm business going is nothing short of keeping the Light of Allah burning on this earth; in our lives; and in our environment, wherever we maybe — Not that Allah needs our help, or anyone else’s help, in keeping his Light burning.

    So, people, everyone of you, ask yourself where you are in this business of dealing with the Qur’an.



    Show all quotes

    Life’s Vagaries and Vicissitudes [Quote – 940]

    Jan 30, 2019 | 6 months ago.

    The big words in the title simply mean this: Life goes up and down. That is the nature of human life on earth. Bad things happen to people, as good things happen to them.

    But it is most amazing that the Qur’an addresses even this common human ailment — life’s difficulties — like every other human situation that the Qur’an addresses and provides remedies and solutions for.

    And when we say Qur’an, remember it also includes Hadith Sharif as divinely guided commentary and earthly substantiation of the Qur’an.

    Allah’s Double Promise in the Qur’an is this: 

    Surely, Life’s Downs will be followed by Ups.
    And surely with Difficulty will come Ease.

    Allah’s words are:

    Fa-Inna Ma’al Usri Yusran,
    Inna Ma’al Usri Yusraa!

    Meaning, it seems to me: The sun will break through the clouds and Good Times will surely come with Bad Times.

    When people face difficulties, whatever their nature or source, my standard answer is: 

    The Qur’an!
    The Qur’an! 
    The Qur’an!

    Turn to the Qur’an; read it; complete it if you can; and make Du’a. Allah’s Rasul, Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, says: Du’a done after reading the Qur’an, or after completing it, is answered by Allah.

    Knowing of course Allah responds to all Du’as all the time.



    Show all quotes

    Library Catalog

    Please request free copies of our books and booklets for your family, friends and local libraries today! Send us your correct address and contact information and a brief introduction who and where you are and what you do. And we will be happy to try and send you our literature free of cost.

    Calendar of Events

    Title Date (Hijri) Date (Gregorian)
    World Day of God 9th Zul Hajj, 1440 August 10th, 2019
    World Day of Repentance 10th Muharram (Aashoora), 1441 September 9th, 2019
    World Day of Qur’an 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal, 1440 November 20th, 2018
    World Day of Democracy 1st Rajab, 1440 March 7th, 2019
    World Day of Fasting 27 Ramadan 1440 May 31st, 2019
    World Day of Education 28 Ramadan 1440 June 1st, 2019

    Calendar Created by Kalamazad Mohammed

    Featured Podcast

    Pasha Hour International – Live from America! – Dec 09, 2016

    A program about ISLAM, MUSLIMS AND THE WORLD – UNLIKE ANY! [...]

    Dr. Pasha

    Share | Archives | About | Listen Live | Invitation

    53381 reads